FANDOM


The following timeline tables list the discoveries and inventions in the history of electrical and electronic engineering.[1][2]

History of discoveries timeline Edit

Year Event
2750 BC Ancient Egyptian texts described electric fish and identified them with thunder[3]
600 BC Phoenician philosopher Thales of Miletus described static electricity by rubbing fur on substances such as amber
300 BC Baghdad Battery invented in Mesopotamia[4]
1300 AD Arabic naturalists and physicians described electric rays and identified them with lightning[5]
1785French mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace developed the Laplace transform to transform a linear differential equation to an algebraic equation, later becoming a tool in circuit analysis
1888 Introduction of the induction motor in a publishes a paper by Italian physicist and electrical engineer Galileo Ferraris and a US patent by Serbian-American engineer Nikola Tesla[6][7]
1894 Indian Bengali physicist Jagadish Chandra Bose introduced use of semiconductor junction to detect radio waves[8][9]
1894 Indian Bengali physicist Jagadish Chandra Bose discovered extremely high frequency millimetre waves[8]
1894 Russian physicist Alexander Stepanovich Popov developed a prototype of a radio receiver
1896 First successful intercontinental telegram
1900 Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi succeeded in first commercial radio broadcast
1901 First commercial transatlantic radio broadcast by Guglielmo Marconi
1924 Japanese engineer Kenjiro Takayanagi began research program on electronic television[10]
1925Austrian American engineer Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented the first FET (which became popular much later)
1926 Japanese engineer Kenjiro Takayanagi demonstrated CRT television with 40-line resolution,[11] the first working example of a fully electronic television receiver.[10]
1926Yagi-Uda antenna was developed by the Japanese engineers Hidetsugu Yagi and Shintaro Uda
1927 Japanese engineer Kenjiro Takayanagi increased television resolution to 100 lines, unrivaled until 1931[12]
1928 Japanese engineer Kenjiro Takayanagi was the first to transmit human faces in half-tones on television, influencing the later work of Vladimir K. Zworykin[13]
1928 Raman scattering discovered by C. V. Raman and Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan,[14] providing basis for later Raman laser
1928 First experimental television broadcast in the US
1929 First public TV broadcast in Germany
1931 First wind energy plant in the Soviet Union
1934 Japanese engineer Akira Nakajima's switching circuit theory lays foundations for digital electronics[15]
1936Dudley E. Foster and Stuart William Seeley developed FM detector circuit
1936Austrian engineer Paul Eisler invented Printed circuit board
1936Scottish Scientist Robert Watson-Watt developed the Radar concept which was proposed earlier
1938 Russian American engineer Vladimir K. Zworykin developed Iconoscope
1939 Edwin Howard Armstrong developed FM radio receiver
1939 Russell and Sigurd Varian developed the first Klystron tube in the US.
1941 German engineer Konrad Zuse developed the first programmable computer in Berlin
1944 Scottish Engineer John Logie Baird developed the first color picture tube
1945Transatlantic telephone cable
1947 American engineers John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain together with their group leader William Shockley invented transistor
1948Hungarian-British physicist Dennis Gabor invented Holography
1950 Japanese engineer Jun-ichi Nishizawa invented the PIN diode,[16] the basis for the laser diode
1950 Static induction transistor invented by Japanese engineers Jun-ichi Nishizawa and Y. Watanabe[17]
1950 French physicist Alfred Kastler invented MASER
1951 First nuclear power plant in the US
1952 Japanese engineer Jun-ichi Nishizawa invented avalanche photodiode[18]
1953 Helical scan video tape recorder invented by Dr. Norikazu Sawazaki in Japan[19]
1953 First fully transistorized computer, the Transistor Computer, invented by University of Manchester
1954 Optical fiber invented by Indian physicist Narinder Singh Kapany[20][21]
1954 Parametron invented by Eiichi Goto[22]
1954 First transistorized stored-program computer, the ETL Mark III, developed by Japan's Electrotechnical Laboratory[23][24]
1955 Solid-state maser invented by Japanese engineer Jun-ichi Nishizawa[18]
1957 Japanese engineer Jun-ichi Nishizawa invented the semiconductor laser[18][25]
1957 First all-electric desktop calculator, the Model 14-A, released by Casio
1958 American engineer Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit (IC)
1960 Practical laser developed by Theodore Harold Maiman
1960 Iranian physicist Ali Javan invented the gas laser
1962 Raman laser invented
1962 Nick Holonyak Jr. invented the LED
1963 First home videocassette recorder (VCR)
1963 Electronic calculator
1971 Static induction thyristor invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa[18][26]
2008 American scientist Richard Stanley Williams invented memristor which was proposed by Leon O. Chua in 1971

History of associated inventions timeline Edit

Template:Refimprove section

Brief History of Electronics Timeline
Date Invention/Discovery Inventor(s)
800 Atomic theory Jābir ibn Hayyān
1900 Old quantum theory Planck
1905 Theory of relativity Einstein
1918 Atomic transmutation Rutherford
1924 Electronic television Kenjiro Takayanagi[10]
1932 Neutron Chadwick
1932 Particle accelerator Crockcroft and Walton
1934 Switching circuit theory (digital electronics) Akira Nakajima[15]
1935 Scanning electron microscope Knoll
1937 Xerography Carlson
1937 Oscillograph Van Ardenne, Dowling, and Bullen
1949 Magnetic-core memory An Wang, Way-Dong Woo[27]
1950 Static induction transistor Jun-ichi Nishizawa, Y. Watanabe
1950 Modem MIT and Bell Labs
1950 Karnaugh mapping technique (digital logic) Karnaugh
1950 Magnetic disk (floppy disk) Yoshiro Nakamatsu[28][29][30]
1952 Digital voltmeter Kay
1953 Helical scan video tape recorder Dr. Norikazu Sawazaki
1953 Transistor computer University of Manchester
1954 Optical fiber Narinder Singh Kapany[20]
1954 Solar battery Chapin, Fuller, and Pearson
1954 Transistorized stored-program computer (ETL Mark III) Electrotechnical Laboratory (Japan)[31][23][32][24]
1954 Parametron Eiichi Goto[22]
1956 Transatlantic telephone cable UK and US
1957 Electric desktop calculator (Model 14-A) Casio
1957 Satellite (Sputnik 1) Kerim Kerimov[33][34] (Soviet Union)
1957 Nuclear Missile Igor Kurchatov (Soviet Union)
1957 FORTRAN programming language Watson Scientific
1958 Train computer reservation system (MARS) Railway Technical Research Institute, Hitachi[35][36]
1959 First one-piece plain paper photocopier (Xerox 914) Xerox
1959 Veroboard (Stripboard) Terry Fitzpatrick
1961 Microprogram-controlled electronic computer (KT-Pilot) Kyoto University, Toshiba[36][37]
1961 Electronic clock Vogel, Cie
1963 Commercially successful audio compact cassette Philips Corporation
1964 BASIC programming language Kemeny and Kurtz
1964 Liquid-crystal display George H. Heilmeier
1965 DRAM memory Toshiba[38][39]
1966 Optical fiber communications Kao and Hockham
1968 Three-chip central processing unit Masatoshi Shima[40][41][42]
1968 Microprocessor concept Tadashi Sasaki[43]
1968 Text-to-speech synthesis Noriko Umeda (Electrotechnical Laboratory)[44]
1969 Digital fax machine Dacom
1969 MOS LSI electronic calculator (Sharp QT-8D) Sharp Corporation[45][46][47]
1969 UNIX operating system AT&T's Bell Labs
1970 Battery-powered handheld calculator (Sharp EL-8) Sharp Corporation[48]
1970 Microprocessor (4004, 60,000 oper/s) Masatoshi Shima, Ted Hoff, Federico Faggin[40][41][42]
1970 Commercial DRAM memory IBM
1971 Calculator-on-a-chip (LE-120A HANDY) Busicom[49]
1971 Microprocessor-based desktop calculator (Busicom 141-PF) Busicom
1971 Space station (Salyut 1) Kerim Kerimov[33][34]
1971 EPROM Dov Frohman
1971 Arcade video game (Computer Space) Nolan Bushnell, Ted Dabney
1971 PASCAL programming language Wirth
1971 Microcontroller Texas Instruments
1971 Laser printer Xerox
1972 8008 processor (200 kHz, 16 kB) Intel
1972 Microcomputer (Sord SMP80/08) Sord Computer Corporation[50][51]
1972 Handheld electronic game (Electro Tic-Tac-Toe) Waco[52][53][54][55][56][57]
1972 Video game console (Magnavox Odyssey) Ralph Baer (Magnavox)
1972 Programmable word processor Automatic Electronic Systems
1972 5¼-inch diskette N/A
1972 Modern ATM machine (IBM 2984) IBM
1973 Color video game (Playtron) Kasco (Kansei Seiki Seisakusho Co.)[58]
1973 Josephson junction IBM
1973 Tunable continuous-wave laser Bell Labs
1973 Ethernet Metcalfe
1973 Mobile phone John F. Mitchell and Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola
1974 Personal computer (Sord SMP80/x series) Sord Computer Corporation[50][59]
1974 Microcomputer operating system (Sord SMP80/x series) Sord Computer Corporation[50][59]
1974 Scrolling video game (Speed Race) Tomohiro Nishikado[60]
1974 Intel 8080 processor Federico Faggin, Masatoshi Shima
1974 C (programming language) Kernighan, Ritchie
1974 Programmable pocket calculator Hewlett-Packard
1975 Static induction thyristor Jun-ichi Nishizawa
1975 16-bit microprocessor (Panafacom MN1610) Panafacom (Fujitsu, Fuji, Matsushita)[61][62][63]
1975 Microprocessor-driven video game (Gun Fight) Taito Corporation, Midway Games
1975 BASIC for personal computers Allen
1975 Digital camera Steven Sasson of Eastman Kodak
1975 Integrated optical circuits Reinhart and Logan
1975 Omni-font optical character recognition system Nuance Communications
1975 CCD flatbed scanner Kurzweil Computer Products
1975 Text-to-speech synthesis Kurzweil Computer Products
1975 Commercial reading machine for the blind (Kurzweil Reading Machine) Kurzweil Computer Products
1976 Zilog Z80 processor Federico Faggin, Masatoshi Shima
1976 Apple I computer Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak
1977 ROM cartridge (Fairchild Channel F) Jerry Lawson
1977 CV/Gate music sequencer (Roland MC-8 Microcomposer) Roland Corporation[64]
1977 Home computers (Apple II, Sord M200, Commodore PET, TRS-80) Apple, Sord,[65] Commodore, Tandy
1977 16-bit microcomputer (Panafacom Lkit-16) Panafacom (Fujitsu, Fuji, Matsushita)[63]
1978 Microprocessor programmable drum machine (Roland CR-78) Roland Corporation[64]
1978 x86 processor architecture (Intel 8086) Intel
1978 WordPerfect 1.0 Satellite Software
1979 Built-in hard drive (Sord M223 Mark VI) Sord Computer Corporation[65]
1979 Tile-based video game (Namco Galaxian) Namco[66]
1979 Compact disc (CD) Sony, Philips
1979 Graphics processing unit (NEC µPD7220) NEC[67][68]
1980 3½-inch floppy (2-sided, 875 kB) Sony
1980 Flash memory Fujio Masuoka (Toshiba)[69][70]
1980 Hardware sprite graphics (Namco Pac-Man) Namco[71]
1980 Commodore VIC-20 (VIC-1001) computer Yash Terakura (Commodore Japan)[72]
1980 Compact Disc Digital Audio (Red Book) Sony, Philips
1981 Commodore MAX Machine home console/computer Yash Terakura (Commodore Japan)[72]
1981 IBM Personal Computer (8088 processor) IBM
1981 MS-DOS 1.0 Microsoft
1981 "Wet" solar cell Bayer AG
1981 MIDI interface Ikutaro Kakehashi (Roland Corporation)[73]
1982 CD-ROM Denon,[74] Sony[75]
1982 PC-9800 series of computers NEC[76]
1982 Commodore 64 computer Yash Terakura,[72] Shiraz Shivji[77] (Commodore)
1982 Commercially marketed large-vocabulary speech recognition Kurzweil Applied Intelligence and Dragon Systems
1983 Satellite television U.S. Satellite Communications, Inc.
1983 C++ (programming language) Stroostrup
1984 LaserDisc digital data storage device Sony[75]
1984 Macintosh computer (introduced) Apple Computer
1984 Synthesizer recreating grand piano and other orchestral instruments (K250) Kurzweil Music Systems
1984 Amiga computer (introduced) Commodore
1985 Atari ST computer Shiraz Shivji[78][79] (Atari)
1985 300,000 simultaneous telephone conversations over single optical fiber AT&T, Bell Labs
1987 Warmer superconductivity Karl Alex Mueller
1987 80386 microprocessor (25 MHz) Intel
1989 Commercial handheld GPS receiver (Magellan NAV 1000) Magellan Navigation Inc.
1989 Silicon-germanium transistors IBM fellow Bernie Meyerson
1990 486 microprocessor (33 MHz) Intel
1993 Weather Control Device / HAARP U.S.
1994 Pentium processor, P5-based (60/90 MHz, 166.2 MIPS) Vinod Dham (Intel)
1994 Bluetooth Ericsson
1994 DVD Sony, Panasonic, Philips, Toshiba
1994 DVD player Tatung Company, Sony
1996 Alpha 21164 processor (550 MHz) Digital Equipment
1996 P2SC processor (15 million transistors) IBM

Consumer Electronics Edit

1843-1923: From electromechanics to electronics Edit

File:Musée français de la photographie de Bièvres 2011 29.jpg
  • 1895: Auguste Lumiere's cinematograph displays moving images for the first time. In the same year, brothers Emil and Max Skladanowsky present their "Bioscop" in Berlin.
  • 1897
    • Ferdinand Braun invents the "inertialess cathode ray oscillograph tube", a principle which remained unchanged in television picture tubes.
    • The Italian Guglielmo Marconi transmits wireless telegraph messages by electromagnetic waves over a distance of five kilometers.
  • 1898
  • 1899: The dog "Nipper" is used in "His Master's Voice", the trademark for gramophones and records.
  • 1902
    • Otto von Bronk patented his "Method and apparatus for remote visualization of images and objects with temporary resolution of the images in parallel rows of dots". This patent, originally developed for phototelegraphy, impacted the development of color television, particularly the NTSC implementation.
    • For the first time audio records are printed with paper labels in the middle.
  • 1903: Guglielmo Marconi provides evidence that wireless telegraphic communication is possible over long distances, such as across the Atlantic. He used a transmitter developed by Ferdinand Braun.
  • 1904
    • For the first time, double-sided records, and those with a diameter of 30 cm are produced, increasing playing time up to 11 minutes (5.5 minutes per side). These are created by Odeon in Berlin and debuted at the Leipzig Spring Fair.
    • The German physicist Arthur Korn developed the first practical method for telegraphy.
  • 1905: The Englishman Sir John Ambrose Fleming invents the first electron tube.
  • 1906
  • 1907: Rosenthal puts in his image telegraph for the first time a photocell.
  • 1911: First film studios are created in Hollywood and Potsdam- Babelsberg .
  • 1912: The first radio receiver is created, in accordance with the Audion principle.
  • 1913: The legal battle over the invention of the electron tube between Robert von Lieben and Lee de Forest is decided. The electron tube is replaced by a high vacuum in the glass flask with significantly improved properties.
    • Alexander Meissner patented his process "feedback for generating oscillations", by his development of a radio station using an electron tube .
    • The Englishman Arthur Berry submits a patent on the manufacture of printed circuits by etched metal.
  • 1915: Carl Benedicks leads basic studies in Sweden on the electrical properties of silicon and germanium. Due to the emerging tube technology, however, interest in semiconductors remains low until after the Second World War.
  • 1917
    • Based on previous findings of the Englishman Oliver Lodge, the Frenchman Lucien Levy develops a radio receiver with frequency tuning using a resonant circuit.
  • 1919: Charlie Chaplin founded the Hollywood film production and distribution company United Artists
  • 1920: The first regularly operating radio station KDKA goes on air on 2 November 1920 in Philadelphia, USA. It is the first time electronics are used to transmit information and entertainment to the public at large. The same year in Germany an instrumental concert was broadcast on the radio from a long-wave transmitter in Wusterhausen.
  • 1922: J. McWilliams Stone invents the first portable radio receiver. George Frost builds the first "car radio" in his Ford Model T.
  • 1923
    • The 15-year-old Manfred von Ardenne is granted his first patent for an electron tube having a plurality of electrodes. Siegmund Loewe (1885-1962) builds with the tube his first radio receiver "Loewe Opta-".
    • The Hungarian engineer Dénes Mihály patented an image scanning with line deflection, in which each point of an image is scanned ten times per second by a selenium cell.
    • August Karolus (1893-1972) invents the Kerr cell, an almost inertia-free conversion of electrical pulses into light signals. He was granted a patent for his method of transmitting slides.
    • Vladimir Kosma developed the first television camera tube, the Ikonoskop, using the Braun tube.
    • The German State Secretary Karl August Bredow founded the first German broadcasting organization. By lifting the ban on broadcast reception and the opening of the first private radio station, the development of radio as a mass medium begins.

1924-1959: From cathode ray tube to stereo audio and TV Edit

  • 1924: the first radio receivers are exhibited at the Berlin Radio Show
  • 1925
    • Brunswick Records in Dubuque, Iowa produced their first record player, the Brunswick Panatrope with a pickup, amplifier and loudspeaker
    • In the American Bell Laboratories, a method for recording of records obtained by microphone and tube amps for series production. Also in Germany working on it is ongoing since 1922. 1925 appear the first electrically recorded disks in both countries.
    • At the Leipzig Spring Fair, the first miniature camera "Leica" is presented to the public.
    • John Logie Baird performs the first screening of a living head with a resolution of 30 vertical lines using a Nipkow disk.
    • August Karolus demonstrated in Germany television with 48 lines and ten image changes per second.
  • 1926
    • Edison developed the first "LP". By dense grooves (16 grooves on 1 mm) and the reduction of speed to 80 min -1 (later 78 min -1 ) increases the playing time up to 2 times 20 minutes. He carries himself with the decline of his phonograph business.
    • The German State Railroad offers a cordless telephone service in moving trains between Berlin and Hamburg - the idea of mobile telephony is born.
    • John Logie Baird developed the first commercial television set in the world. It was not until 1930, he is called a " telescreen sold "at a price of 20 pounds.
  • 1927
    • The first fully electronic music boxes ("Jukeboxes") used in the USA on the market.
    • German Grammophon on sale due to a license agreement with the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company. Its first fully electronic turntables.
    • The first industrially manufactured car radio , the "Philco Transitone" from the "Storage Battery Co." in Philadelphia, USA, comes on the market.
    • The first shortwave radio - Rundfunkübertragung overseas broadcast by the station PCJJ the Philips factories in Eindhoven in the Dutch colonies.
    • Opening of the first regular telegraphy -Dienstes between Berlin and Vienna.
    • First commercial sound films ("The Jazz Singer", USA) using the "Needle sound" back in sync with the film screening for LPs over loudspeakers.
    • First public television broadcasts in the UK by John Logie Baird between London and Glasgow and in the USA by Frederic Eugene Ives (1882-1953) between Washington and New York.
    • The American inventor Philo Taylor Farnsworth (1906-1971) developed in Los Angeles, the first fully electronic television system in the world.
    • John Logie Baird developed his Phonovision, the first videodisc player. 30-line television images are stored on shellac records. At 78 RPM mechanically scanned, the images can be played back on his "telescreen". It could not play sound nor keep up with the rapidly increasing resolution of television. More than 40 years later, commercial optical disc players came onto the market.
  • 1928: Fritz Pfleumer got the first tape recorder patent. It replaces steel wire with paper coated in iron powder. According to Valdemar Poulsen (1898) to the second crucial pioneer of magnetic sound, image and data storage
    • Dénes Mihály presented in Berlin a small circle, the first authentic television broadcast in Germany, having worked at least since 1923 in this field.
    • August Karolus and the company Telefunken put on the "fifth Great German Radio Exhibition Berlin 1928" the prototype of a television receiver, with an image size of 8 cm × 10 cm and a resolution of about 10,000 pixels, a much better picture quality than previous devices.
    • In New York (USA) the first regular television broadcasts of the experiment station WGY, operated by the General Electric Company (GE). Sporadic television news and dramas radiate from these stations by 1928.
      • The first commercially produced television receiver of the Daven Corporation in Newark is offered for $75.
    • John Logie Baird transmits the first television pictures internationally, and the same across the Atlantic from London to New York. He also demonstrated the world's first color television transmission in London.
  • 1929
    • Edison withdraws from the phono business - the disk has ousted the cylinder.
    • The company Columbia Records developed the first portable record player that can be connected to any tube radio. It also created the first radio / phonograph combinations, the precursor to the 1960s music chests.
File:Dailygraph.jpg
    • The German physicist Curt Stille (1873-1957) records magnetic sound for film, on a perforated steel band. First, this "Magnettonverfahren" has no success. Years later it is rediscovered for amateur films, providing easy dubbing. A "Daylygraph" or Magnettongerät had amplifier and equalizer, and a mature Magnettondiktiergerät called "Textophon".
    • Based on patents, which he had purchased of silence, brings the Englishman E. Blattner the " Blattnerphone "the first magnetic sound recording on the market. It records on a thin steel band.
    • The first sound film using optical sound premiers. Since the early 1920s, various people have developed this method. The same optoelectronic method also allows for the first time the post-processing of recorded music to sound recordings of it.
    • The director Carl Froelich (1875-1953) turns "The Night Belongs to Us", the first German sound film.
    • 20th Century Fox presents in New York on an 8 m × 4 m big screen the first widescreen movie.
    • The radio station Witzleben begins in Germany with the regular broadcasting of television test broadcasts, initially on long wave with 30 lines (= 1,200 pixels) at 12.5 image changes per second. It appear first blueprints for television receiver.
    • John Logie Baird starts in the UK on behalf of the BBC with regular experimental television broadcasts to the public.
    • Frederic Eugene Ives transmits a color television from New York to Washington.
  • 1930
  • 1931
    • The British engineer and inventor Alan Dower Blumlein (1903-1942) invents "Binaural Sound", today called "Stereo". He developed the stereo record and the first three-way speaker. He makes experimental films with stereo sound. Then he becomes leader of the development team for the EMI -405-line television system.
    • The company RCA Victor presents to the public the first real LP record, the 35 cm diameter and 33.33 RPM give sufficient playing time for an entire orchestral work. But the new turntables are initially so expensive that they are only gain broad acceptance after the Second World War - then as vinyl record.
    • The French physicist René Barthélemy leads in Paris the first public television with clay before. The BBC launches first Tonversuche in the UK.
    • Public World Premiere of electronic television - without electro-mechanical components such as the Nipkow disk - on the "eighth Great German Radio Exhibition Berlin 1931 ". Doberitz / Pomerania is the first German location for a tone-TV stations.
    • Manfred von Ardenne can be the principle of a color picture tube patent: Narrow strips of phosphors in the three primary colors are closely juxtaposed arranged so that they complement each other with the electron flow to white light. A separate control of the three colors has not yet provided.
  • 1932
    • The company AEG and BASF start for the magnetic tape method of Fritz Pfleumer to care (1928). They develop new devices and tapes, in which celluloid is used instead of paper as a carrier material.
    • In Britain, the BBC sends first radio programs time-shifted instead of live.
    • The company telephone and radio apparatus factory Ideal AG (today Blaupunkt) provides a car radio using Bowden cables to control it from the steering column.
  • 1933
    • After the Nazi seizure of power in Germany is broadcasting finally a political tool. Systematic censorship is to prevent opposition and spread the "Aryan culture". Series production of the " People's recipient VE 301 "starts.
    • Edwin Howard Armstrong demonstrates that frequency-modulated (FM) radio transmissions are less susceptible to interference than amplitude-modulated (AM). However, practical application is long delayed.
    • In the USA the first opened drive-in theater.
  • 1934: First commercial stereo recordings find little favor - the necessary playback devices are still too expensive. The term "High Fidelity" is embossed around this time.
  • 1935
    • AEG and BASF place at the Berlin Radio Show, the tape recorder " Magnetophon K1 "and the appropriate magnetic tapes before. In case of fire in the exhibition hall all four exhibited devices are destroyed.
    • In Germany the world's first regular television program operating for about 250 mostly public reception points starts in Berlin and the surrounding area. The mass production of television receivers is - probably due to the high price of 2,500 Reichsmarks - not yet started.
    • At the same time, the research institute of the German Post (RPF) begins with development work for a color television methods , but which are later reinstated due to the Second World War.
  • 1936
    • Olympic Games in Berlin broadcast live.
    • "Olympia suitcase", battery-powered portable radio receiver, introduced.
    • The first mobile television camera (180 lines, all-electronic) is used for live television broadcasts of the Olympic Games.
    • Also in the UK are first regular television broadcasts - now for the perfect electronic EMI system, which soon replaced the mechanical part Baird system - broadcast.
    • Video telephony connections between booths in Berlin and Leipzig. Later connections from Berlin to Nuremberg and Munich added.
    • The Frenchman Raymond Valtat reports on a patent, which describes the principle of working with binary numbers abacus.
    • Konrad Zuse works on a dual electromechanical computing machine that is ready in 1937.
  • 1937
    • First sapphire needle for records of the company Siemens
    • The interlaced video method is introduced on TVr to reduce image flicker. The transmitter Witzleben uses the new standard with 441 lines and 25 image changes, i.e. 50 fields of 220 half-lines. Until the HDTV era the interlace method remains in use.
    • First movie encoder make it possible not to send the TV live, but to rely on recordings.
  • 1938
    • The improved AEG tape-recorder "Magnetophon K4" is first used in radio studios. The belt speed is 77 cm / s, which at 1000 m length of tape has a playing time of 22 minutes.
    • Werner Flechsig invents the shadow mask method for separate control of the three primary colors in a color picture tube.
  • 1939
    • On the "16th Great German Radio and television broadcasting exhibition Berlin 1939 ", the" German Unity television receiver E1 "and announces the release of free commercial television. Due to the difficult political and economic situation, only about 50 devices are sold instead of the planned 10,000.
    • In the USA the first regular television broadcasts take place.
  • 1940
    • The development of television technology for military purposes increases the resolution to 1029 lines at 25 frames per second. Commercial HDTV television reached that resolution almost half a century later.
    • The problem of band noise with tape devices is reduced dramatically by the invention of radio frequency bias of Walter Weber and Hans-Joachim von Braunmühl.
  • 1942 : The first all-electronic computer is used by John Vincent Atanasoff, but quickly fades into oblivion. Four years later the ENIAC completed - the beginning of the end of Electromechanics in computers and calculators.
  • 1945-1947 : American soldiers capture in Germany some tape recorders. This and the nullified German patents leads to the development of the first tape recorders in the United States. The first home device " Sound Mirror "by the Brush Development Co. is there on the market.
  • 1948
    • The American physicist and industrialist Edwin Herbert Land (1909-1991) launches the first instant camera, Polaroid camera Model 95 on the market.
    • Three American engineers at Bell Laboratories (John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley) invent the transistor. Its lesser size and power compared with electron tubes brings (from 1955) portable radio receivers starting its march through all areas of electronics.
    • The Hungarian-American physicist Peter Carl Goldmark (1906-1977) invents the vinyl record (first published 1952), much less noisy than their predecessors shellac. Thanks to micro-groove (100 grooves per cm) can play 23 minutes per side. The LP record is born. This one is the redemption of the claim "high fidelity one step closer" to the end of the shellac era.
    • The Radio Corporation of America (RCA) leads the music format with 45 RPM records, later to conquer the market for cheap players. The first publication in Germany in this format appears 1953rd
    • The British physicist Dennis Gabor (1900-1979) invents holography. This method of recording and reproducing image with coherent light allows three-dimensional images. It was not until 1971 when the procedure gained practical importance, he received the Nobel Prize for Physics.
  • 1949
    • In Germany, FM broadcasting starts regular program operation.
    • Experimentally since 1943, series production since 1949 there are for professional use stereo - Tonbandgeräte and matching ribbons. Also portable devices for reporters, initially propelled by a spring mechanism, has been around since 1949
  • 1950
    • In the USA the first prerecorded audio tapes are marketed.
    • Also in the USA the company Zenith markets the first TV with cable remote control for channel selection.
  • 1951
    • The CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System) broadcasts in New York the first color television program in the world, but using the field sequential standard, not reaching to the resolution of the black and white television and was to be incompatible.
    • With the " tape recorder F15 "from AEG 's first home tape recorder appears on the German market.
    • RCA Electronic Music is the first synthesizer prior to the creation of artificial electronic sounds.
  • 1952
    • Reintroduction of regular television broadcasts in Germany after the Second World War.
    • 20th Century Fox developed with "Cinemascope" the most successful wide-screen process to better compete with television. Only some 50 years later pulls the TV with the 16: 9 size screen after.
  • 1953
    • The "National Television System Committee" (Abbreviated as NTSC) normalized in the USA named after her black-and-white-compatible NTSC -Farbfernseh process. A year later, this method is introduced in the United States.
    • The car radio top model "Mexico" from Becker for the first time to an FM area (in mono) and an automatic tuning.
  • 1954
    • RCA developed for the first apparatus for recording video signals on magnetic tapes. 22 km magnetic tape are needed per hour. By 1956, succeeds the company Ampex through the use of multiple tracks, the tape speed to more practicable 38.1 cm / s lower.
    • The European Broadcasting Union is founded "Euro Vision".
    • First regular television broadcasts in Japan.
  • 1955
    • The second generation "TRADIC" (Transistorized Digital Computer), first to use only transistors therefore much smaller and more powerful than its predecessor tube computers.
    • The Briton Narinder S. Kapany investigated the propagation of light in fine glass fibers (optical fibers).
    • The first wireless remote control for a television US-based Zenith consists of a better flashlight, with which one lights up in one of the four devices corners to turn the unit on or off, change the channel or mute the sound.
  • 1956
    • The company Metz introduces radio device type 409 / 3D. First mass production of printed circuit boards. This follows since the 1930s, several improvements to the manufacturing technology.
    • The company Ampex introduces the "VR 1000" the first video recorder. That same year, CBS uses it for the first magnetic video tape recording (VTR) from. Although other programs are produced in color since 1954, the VTR cannot record color.
  • 1957 : The Frenchman Henri de France (1911-1986) developed the first generation of color TV system SECAM ( Système électronique couleur avec mémoire ), which avoids some of the problems of the NTSC method. The weaknesses of the SECAM system be fixed in later modifications of the standard for the most part.
  • 1958
    • By merging the Edison patents and the Berliner, the Blumlein stereo recording method becomes commercially viable. The company Mercury Records launches the first stereo record on the market.
    • The company Ampex expands the video recorder with the Model "VR 1000 B" to give it color capability.

See alsoEdit

References Edit

  1. Isaac Asimov:Biographical Encyclopedia of science and Engineering, London, 1975 ISBN 0-330-24323-3
  2. Elektrik Mühendisliği, s.259-260, Kemal İnan pp 245-263
  3. Moller, Peter; Kramer, Bernd (December 1991), "Review: Electric Fish", BioScience (American Institute of Biological Sciences) 41 (11): 794–6 [794], Error: Bad DOI specified, JSTOR 1311732 
  4. Frood, Arran (27 February 2003). "Riddle of 'Baghdad's batteries'". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2804257.stm. Retrieved 20 October 2015. 
  5. The Encyclopedia Americana; a library of universal knowledge (1918), New York: Encyclopedia Americana Corp
  6. Fritz E. Froehlich, Allen Kent, The Froehlich/Kent Encyclopedia of Telecommunications: Volume 17, page 36. Books.google.com. https://books.google.com/books?id=8j5bJ5OkGpgC&pg=PA36&lpg=PA36&dq=Westinghouse+tesla++Electrical+Engineers&source=bl&ots=5nHK8Hlhi1&sig=7NmfQ2iGm7IznasuUyl8Ce58bNQ&hl=en&sa=X&ei=1-xNUNb6Aonw0gGWv4H4Cg&ved=0CFMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=Westinghouse%20tesla%20%20Electrical%20Engineers&f=false. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  7. The Electrical Engineer. (1888). London: Biggs & Co. Pg., 239. [cf., "[...] new application of the alternating current in the production of rotary motion was made known almost simultaneously by two experimenters, Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris, and the subject has attracted general attention from the fact that no commutator or connection of any kind with the armature was required."]
  8. 8.0 8.1 Emerson, D. T. (1997). "The work of Jagadis Chandra Bose: 100 years of MM-wave research". IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Research 45 (12): 2267–2273. Bibcode 1997imsd.conf..553E. Error: Bad DOI specified. ISBN 9780986488511. https://books.google.com/books?id=09Zsv97IH1MC&pg=PA88.  reprinted in Igor Grigorov, Ed., Antentop, Vol. 2, No.3, pp. 87–96.
  9. Sungook Hong, Wireless: From Marconi's Black-box to the Audion, MIT Press – 2001, page 22
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Milestones:Development of Electronic Television, 1924-1941. Retrieved on December 11, 2015.
  11. Kenjiro Takayanagi: The Father of Japanese Television, NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation), 2002, retrieved 2009-05-23.
  12. High Above: The untold story of Astra, Europe's leading satellite company, page 220, Springer Science+Business Media
  13. Albert Abramson, Zworykin, Pioneer of Television, University of Illinois Press, 1995, p. 231. ISBN 0-252-02104-5.
  14. Raman, C. V. (1928). "A new radiation". Indian J. Phys. 2: 387–398. http://hdl.handle.net/2289/2135. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Radomir S. Stanković, Jaakko Astola (2008), Reprints from the Early Days of Information Sciences: TICSP Series On the Contributions of Akira Nakashima to Switching Theory, TICSP Series #40, Tampere International Center for Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology
  16. https://books.google.com/books?id=PbYgBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA137
  17. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3qz0gSVbaesC&pg=PA82
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 http://jqrmag.com/en/jqr-interview-eng/jun-ichi-nishizawa-engineer-sophia-university-special-professor/
  19. SMPTE Journal: Publication of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Volume 96, Issues 1-6; Volume 96, page 256, Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
  20. 20.0 20.1 Narinder Singh Kapany Chair in Opto-electronics. ucsc.edu.
  21. Narinder Kapany – Dean's Advisory Council – Dean's Office – Administration. Baskin School of Engineering, UCSC (31 July 2005). Archived from the original on 31 July 2005.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Parametron, Information Processing Society of Japan
  23. 23.0 23.1 【Electrotechnical Laboratory】 ETL Mark III Transistor-Based Computer, Information Processing Society of Japan
  24. 24.0 24.1 Martin Fransman (1993), The Market and Beyond: Cooperation and Competition in Information Technology, page 19, Cambridge University Press
  25. The Third Industrial Revolution Occurred in Sendai, Soh-VEHE International Patent Office, Japan Patent Attorneys Association
  26. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=e35kJYAlyCgC&pg=PA231
  27. Wang Interview, An Wang's Early Work in Core Memories, Datamation, 1976, March, pp. 161–163
  28. Lazarus, David (April 10, 1995). "'Japan's Edison' Is Country's Gadget King : Japanese Inventor Holds Record for Patent". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/1995/04/10/news/10iht-matscon.ttt.html. Retrieved 2010-12-21. 
  29. YOSHIRO NAKAMATSU – THE THOMAS EDISON OF JAPAN, Stellarix Consultancy Services, 2015
  30. Magnetic record sheet, Patent US3131937
  31. Early Computers, Information Processing Society of Japan
  32. Early Computers: Brief History, Information Processing Society of Japan
  33. 33.0 33.1 Peter Bond, Obituary: Lt-Gen Kerim Kerimov, The Independent, 7 April 2003
  34. 34.0 34.1 Betty Blair (1995), "Behind Soviet Aeronauts", Azerbaijan International 3 (3)
  35. 【Hitachi and Japanese National Railways】 MARS-1, Information Processing Society of Japan
  36. 36.0 36.1 Early Computers: Brief History, Information Processing Society of Japan
  37. 【Kyoto University,Toshiba】 KT-Pilot, Information Processing Society of Japan
  38. Toshiba "Toscal" BC-1411 Desktop Calculator
  39. Toscal BC-1411 calculator, Science Museum, London
  40. 40.0 40.1 Nigel Tout. The Busicom 141-PF calculator and the Intel 4004 microprocessor. Retrieved on November 15, 2009.
  41. 41.0 41.1 Federico Faggin, The Making of the First Microprocessor, IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine, Winter 2009, IEEE Xplore
  42. 42.0 42.1 Masatoshi Shima
  43. Aspray, William (1994-05-25). Oral-History: Tadashi Sasaki. Interview #211 for the Center for the History of Electrical Engineering. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.. Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
  44. Klatt, D (1987). "Review of text-to-speech conversion for English". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 82 (3): 737–93. Error: Bad DOI specified. 
  45. Rick Bensene. Sharp QT-8D Electronic Calculator. The Old Calculator Web Museum. Retrieved on September 29, 2010.
  46. Sharp History — 1969–1970: From Senri to Tenri. SHARP World. Sharp Corporation. Retrieved on September 30, 2010.
  47. Nigel Tout. Sharp QT-8D "micro Compet". Vintage Calculators Web Museum. Retrieved on September 29, 2010.
  48. Nigel Tout. Sharp QT-8B "micro Compet". Vintage Calculators Web Museum. Retrieved on October 2, 2010.
  49. "The one-chip calculator is here, and it's only the beginning", Electronic Design, February 18, 1971, p. 34
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 【Sord】 SMP80/x series, Information Processing Society of Japan
  51. Michael Katz, Robert Levering, Milton Moskowitz (1985), Computer Entrepreneur, page 469, Penguin Group
  52. Demaria, Rusel; Johnny L. Wilson (2002). High Score! The Illustrated History of Video games. McGraw-Hill. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-07-222428-3. https://books.google.com/?id=HJNvZLvpCEQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=High+Score!+The+Illustrated+History+of+Video+games. 
  53. Die Geschichte der Handhelds, Teil 1 von 1972 – 1989. GIGA.
  54. Waco Tic-Tac-Toe. handheldmuseum.com.
  55. The Golden Age of Video Games. google.com.
  56. Handbook of Research on Digital Media and Advertising: User Generated .... google.com.
  57. Game Preview. google.com.
  58. Kasco and the Electro-Mechanical Golden Age (Interview), Classic Videogame Station ODYSSEY, 2001
  59. 59.0 59.1 Michael Katz, Robert Levering, Milton Moskowitz (1985), Computer Entrepreneur, page 463, Penguin Group
  60. Bill Loguidice & Matt Barton (2009), Vintage games: an insider look at the history of Grand Theft Auto, Super Mario, and the most influential games of all time, p. 197, Focal Press, ISBN 0-240-81146-1
  61. History. PFU. Retrieved on 5 October 2010.
  62. 16-bit Microprocessors. CPU Museum. Retrieved on 5 October 2010.
  63. 63.0 63.1 PANAFACOM Lkit-16, Information Processing Society of Japan
  64. 64.0 64.1 Gordon Reid (Nov 2004). "The History Of Roland Part 1: 1930-1978". Sound On Sound. http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/nov04/articles/roland.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-19. 
  65. 65.0 65.1 【Sord】 M200 Smart Home Computer Series, Information Processing Society of Japan
  66. Mark J. P. Wolf (15 June 2012). Before the Crash: Early Video Game History. Wayne State University Press. p. 173. https://books.google.com/books?id=oK3D4i5ldKgC&pg=PA173. Retrieved 8 July 2016. 
  67. F.Robert A. Hopgood, Roger J. Hubbold, David A. Duce, ed. (1986). Advances in Computer Graphics II. Springer. p. 169. ISBN 9783540169109. https://books.google.com/books?id=2j4hTAqxJ_sC&pg=PA169. "Perhaps the best known one is the NEC 7220." 
  68. Tetsuji Oguchi; Misao Higuchi; Takashi Uno; Michiori Kamaya; Munekazu Suzuki (February 1981). "A Single-chip Graphic Display Controller". International Solid State Circuit Conference (IEEE): 170–171. Error: Bad DOI specified. http://www.oguchi-rd.com/isscc/isscc.pdf. 
  69. Fulford, Benjamin (24 June 2002). Unsung hero. Forbes. Retrieved on 18 March 2008.
  70. US 4531203  Fujio Masuoka
  71. Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System. MIT Press (9 January 2009).
  72. 72.0 72.1 72.2 Video interview with Yash Terakura | Scene World – The C64 NTSC/PAL Disk Magazine. Sceneworld.org. Retrieved on 2015-12-30.
  73. Chadabe, Joel (1 May 2000). "Part IV: The Seeds of the Future". Electronic Musician (Penton Media) XVI (5). http://www.emusician.com/gear/0769/the-electronic-century-part-iv-the-seeds-of-the-future/145415. 
  74. Videodisc Update, Volumes 1-3, page 13, 1982
  75. 75.0 75.1 Japanese PCs (1984) (14:24), Computer Chronicles
  76. "Computing Japan". Computing Japan (LINC Japan) 54-59: 18. 1999. https://books.google.com/books?id=oP61AAAAIAAJ. Retrieved 6 February 2012. "...its venerable PC 9800 series, which has sold more than 18 million units over the years, and is the reason why NEC has been the number one PC vendor in Japan for as long as anyone can remember." 
  77. Classic Videogame Hardware Genius Guide, page 230, Imagine Publishing
  78. Classic Videogame Hardware Genius Guide, page 230, Imagine Publishing
  79. InfoWorld, October 16, 1989, page 44
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.